Common Brain Injuries
The following are common brain injuries.
Traumatic Brain Injury. Traumatic brain injury is sudden physical damage to the brain by an external force which causes the brain to collide with the skull. It is often the result of a blow to the head, such as the head striking the inside door frame during a car accident, but can also be caused when a hard object pierces the skull and penetrates the brain tissue, such as a bullet.
Anoxic brain injury. Anoxic brain injury is the result of inadequate oxygen to the brain and is also known as cerebral hypoxia or hypoxic-anoxic injury. After only four minutes without oxygen, the brain begins losing brain cells. After five minutes, permanent anoxic brain injury can occur.
Hypoxic brain injury. Hypoxic brain injury results when the brain does not receive adequate oxygen, causing damage to both brain cells and the spinal cord. It occurs due to a lack of blood flow to the brain because of a reduction in blood flow or blood pressure.
Locked-in syndrome. Locked-in syndrome is a neurological disorder consisting of complete paralysis of all voluntary muscles except the muscles that control eye movement. One who suffers from locked-in syndrome is fully conscious and alert, able to both see and hear, but unable to move any body parts except vertical movements of the eyes and blinking.
Shaken baby syndrome. Shaken baby syndrome is a form of child abuse. It is caused by vigorously shaking an infant and is often the result of a frustrated adult who shakes the baby in order to make it stop crying. Swelling, bruising and bleeding can result from the shaking and can lead to permanent brain damage or death.
Open head injury. An open head injury penetrates the skull and enters the brain. They usually affect a certain area of brain tissue and can be caused by hard objects, such as bullets, knives or other weapons penetrating the brain.
Closed head injury. Unlike open head injuries, closed head injuries are injuries to the brain that do not penetrate the skull. They are typically caused by blows to the head and will often result from motor vehicle collisions, falls, assaults or sporting accidents.
Brain contusions. Brain contusions, also known as cerebral contusions, are bruises of the brain tissue caused by small blood vessel leaks. They are considered more serious than concussions because, unlike concussions, they involve structural brain damage.